Following the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer's determination of a link between processed meat and cancer, a data tracking group says the IARC findings may not have an impact on consumers' attitudes toward meat consumption.
NPD Group, which tracks eating attitudes and behaviors, analyzed consumption behaviors after a 2002 American Cancer Society report which recommended that consumers limit their consumption of processed and red meats, especially those high in fat.
The ACS report, which was widely publicized at the time of its release, cited epidemiologic studies that found populations with diets high in fruits and vegetables and low in animal fat, meat, or calories have a reduced risk of some of the most common types of cancer. In its recommendations, ACS stated that in the United States, about 35% of cancer deaths may be avoidable through dietary modification.
The NPD analysis, which was based on information collected through its National Eating Trends service, looked at consumption trends for processed meats, fish/seafood, steak, bacon/substitute bacon, poultry, ham, pork (excluding ham and bacon), and ground beef/hamburger/patties/and dishes.
There was no discernible difference in the consumption of processed and red meats or many of the other animal proteins tracked after the ACS guidelines were released compared to eating patterns prior to 2002.
Processed meat consumption did decline somewhat beginning in 2005 until 2007 when its consumption steadily increased through 2014. Poultry consumption also increased from 2003 through 2007 and has plateaued since.
After the study
Since attitudes and behaviors can differ, NPD also looked at consumers' intentions to eat processed and red meats after the release of the ACS' dietary guidelines in the spring of 2002 using data from its Food Safety Monitor, which continually tracks awareness and concern about food safety issues. Eating intentions for these foods continued to follow the same patterns as before the release of the ACS guidelines.
"What our analysis shows is that we humans are creatures of habit for the most part, and are slow to change but we do evolve," says Darren Seifer, NPD food and beverage industry analyst. "It's that slow evolution in both attitudes and behaviors to which producers, processors, food manufacturers, and retailers must pay attention."
Following backlash from its IARC report, WHO said last week that the new report doesn't ask people to stop eating processed meats, but says that lower amounts could limit risk for colorectal cancer.
Meat industry groups were prepared for the IARC findings before they were publicly released, and the National Pork Producers Council, for example, reinforced their position that IARC's conclusions were based on "relatively weak statistical associations from epidemiological studies that were not designed to show cause and effect."